I spend a lot of time working with geospatial data, mostly from around Greenland. Maps are a great way of presenting these data; a well-considered map can convey a huge amount of information. A few examples are displayed below, some have been published in The Holocene (Dyke et al., 2018), Quaternary Science Reviews (Dyke et al., 2014), and Scientific Reports (Dyke et al., 2017; Andresen et al., 2017).

Map of southeast Greenland showing the location of sites in Dyke et al. 2018 (20x vertical exaggeration). The inset map shows the extent of the main figure. Red circles denote 10Be sampling sites in this study, the green star marks the location of sediment core ER1116 (Dyke et al., 2017). The location of previously published 10Be and 26Al exposure ages are shown by the yellow circles (Dyke et al., 2014; Hughes et al., 2012; Roberts et al., 2008). Bathymetric data are from Jakobsson et al. (2012). Surface ocean currents are adapted from Sutherland and Pickart (2008). Individual present-day drainage basins are shown for Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim Glaciers. Composite basins are shown for the glaciers draining into Ikertivaq, Køge Bugt, Gyldenløve Fjord, and Bernstorffs Fjord (Millan et al., 2018). Terrestrial imagery is a composite mosaic of Landsat 8 scenes draped onto elevation data from Howat et al. (2014). Figure from Dyke et al. (2018).

Bedrock and erratic 10Be exposure ages from southeast Greenland: (a) Tugtilik (TG), 2x vertical exaggeration; (b) Ikertivaq (IK), 4x vertical exaggeration; (c) Køge Bugt (KB), 4x vertical exaggeration and (d) Gerners Island (GI), 2x vertical exaggeration. Background images are Landsat 8 scenes draped on elevation data from Howat et al. (2014). The inset map shows the location and extent of maps a–d (red boxes). Erratic samples are shown in blue. Bedrock samples are shown in magenta. Yellow squares show the location of photos in Figure 2; the field-of-view is shown by the grey shading. Figure from Dyke et al. (2018).

Map of 10Be exposure dates from southeast Greenland (Dyke et al., 2014; Hughes et al., 2012; Dyke et al., 2018). Terrestrial elevation data are from Howat et al. (2014). Bathymetric data are from Jakobsson et al. (2012). Camel plots generated using MATLAB after Balco (2011). Erratic 10Be exposure ages are shown in blue. Bedrock 10Be exposure ages are shown in magenta. The timing of deglaciation at each site is shown by the dashed line, errors are shown by the grey shaded area. The latitudinal trend in the deglaciation of high-discharge glacier systems is shown in the inset plot. The linear regression excludes samples from Tugtilik (hollow circles). Samples are coloured by sampling site and show their individual internal uncertainties. Figure from Dyke et al. (2018).

Petermann Glacier, northern Greenland. LANDSAT 8 OLI imagery draped on the GIMP digital elevation model (Howat et al., 2014). 4x vertical exaggeration. Inset map shows extent of main figure (red box).

Seasonal changes at Sermilik Fjord, southeast Greenland. LANDSAT 8 OLI scenes from April and August 2016 draped on the GIMP digital elevation model (Howat et al., 2014). Inset map shows the extent of the main figure (red box). Figure prepared for Andresen et al. (2017), but not used in final manuscript.

Map of the North Atlantic region showing the major surface ocean currents (colour of arrows indicate temperature; red = warm, blue = cold, yellow = mixture). HG = Helheim Glacier; KG = Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier; JI = Jakobshavn Isbræ. Magenta circles show location of sediment cores discussed in the text. The magenta box delineates the extent of the inset map. Bathymetric data are from IBCAO v3 (Jakobsson et al., 2012). Terrestrial topographic data are from the ETOPO1 Global Relief model (Amante and Eakins, 2009) and the GIMP surface digital elevation model (Howat et al., 2014). The inset map of Sermilik Fjord shows the location of sediment core ER07 and the local bathymetry (Schjøth et al., 2012). Figure from Andresen et al. (2017).

Køge Bugt, southeast Greenland. LANDSAT 8 OLI imagery draped on the GIMP digital elevation model (Howat et al., 2014), bathymetric data are from Dyke et al. (2017). 4x vertical exaggeration. Inset map shows extent of main figure (red box). Figure prepared for Dyke et al. (2017), but not used in the final manuscript.

Geological map of Greenland, 1:14,000,000. Light colours denote ice covered bedrock. Adapted from Dawes (2009). Bathymetric data from IOC, IHO, and BODC (2003). Major settlements and important locations are labelled. Figure from Dyke (2014).

North Atlantic surface circulation, 1:18,000,000. Features adapted from Straneo et al. (2012) and references therein. East Greenland Coastal Current from Bacon et al. (2002). Bathymetric data from IBCAO v3 (Jakobsson et al., 2012). Figure from Dyke (2014).

Regional deglaciation chronology, SE Greenland. Constructional feature from Andrews et al. (1997). Black line shows Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice limit from Funder et al. (2011). Inset map and box show location of figure. Multi-hue colour scales calculated using Bézier interpolation and lightness correction (e.g. Harrower and Brewer, 2003). Figure from Dyke et al. (2014).

Fjord 10Be chronology. A: Bernstorffs Fjord. B: Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord. 10Be exposure ages are reported in thousands of years (ka) with internal uncertainties. Camera position and field of view (where relevant) for photographs are shown. Background imagery — pan-sharpened, false-colour Landsat ETM+ scenes (http://glovis.usgs.gov/). Figure from Dyke et al. (2014).


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Dawes, P. R. (2009). The bedrock geology under the Inland Ice: the next major challenge for Greenland mapping. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 57–60.

Dyke, L. M., Hughes, A. L. C., Andresen, C. S., Murray, T., Hiemstra, J. F., Bjørk, A. A., and Rodés, Á. (2018) The deglaciation of coastal areas of southeast Greenland. The Holocene XX(X): 1–10.

Dyke, L. M., Andresen, C. S., Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Hughes, A. L. C., Hiemstra, J. F., Murray, T., Bjørk, A. A., Sutherland, D. A., and Vermassen, F. (2017) Minimal Holocene retreat of large tidewater glaciers in Køge Bugt, southeast Greenland. Scientific Reports 7(12330): 1–10.

Dyke L. M. (2014) The late-Quaternary glacial history of southeast Greenland. PhD thesis, Swansea University. 1–304.

Dyke, L. M., Hughes, A. L. C., Murray, T., Hiemstra, J. F., Andresen, C. S., and Rodés, Á. (2014) Evidence for the asynchronous retreat of large outlet glaciers in southeast Greenland at the end of the last glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 99: 244–259.

Funder, S. V., Kjeldsen, K. K., Kjær, K. H., and Ó Cofaigh, C. (2011). The Greenland Ice Sheet during the past 300,000 years: A review. In J. Ehlers, Gibbard P.L., and P.D. Hughes, editors, Development in Quaternary Sciences: Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, 15. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 699–713.

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Howat, I. M., Negrete, A., and Smith, B. E. (2014). The Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) land classification and surface elevation datasets. The Cryosphere, 8(1): 1509–1518.

Hughes, A. L. C., Rainsley, E., Murray, T., Fogwill, C. J., Schnabel, C., and Xu, S. (2012). Rapid response of Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland, to early Holocene climate warming. Geology, 40(5): 427–430.

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Jakobsson, M., Mayer, L., Coakley, B., Dowdeswell, J. A., Forbes, S., Fridman, B., Hodnesdal, H., Noormets, R., Pedersen, R., Rebesco, M., Schenke, H. W., Zarayskaya, Y., Accettella, D., Armstrong, A., Anderson, R. M., Bienhoff, P., Camerlenghi, A., Church, I., Edwards, M., Gardner, J. V., Hall, J. K., Hell, B., Hestvik, O., Kristoffersen, Y., Marcussen, C., Mohammad, R., Mosher, D., Nghiem, S. V., Pedrosa, M. T., Travaglini, P. G., and Weatherall, P. (2012). The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(L12609): 1–6.

Millan, R., Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Wood, M., Bjørk, A. A., and Morlighem, M. (2018). Vulnerability of Southeast Greenland glaciers to warm Atlantic Water from Operation IceBridge and Ocean Melting Greenland data. Geophysical Research Letters, 45: 2688–2696.

Roberts, D. H., Long, A. J., Schnabel, C., Freeman, S., and Simpson, M. J. R. (2008). The deglacial history of southeast sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(15–16): 1505–1516.

Schjøth, F. and Andresen, C. S. and Straneo, F. and Murray, T. and Scharrer, K. and Korablev, A. (2012). Campaign to Map the Bathymetry of a Major Greenland Fjord. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 93(14): 141–142.

Straneo, F., Sutherland, D. A., Holland, D., Gladish, C., Hamilton, G., Johnson, H., Rignot, E., Xu, Y., and Koppes, M. (2012). Characteristics of ocean waters reaching Greenland's glaciers. Annals of Glaciology, 53(60): 202–210.

Sutherland, D. A. and Pickart, R. S. (2008). The East Greenland Coastal Current: Structure, variability, and forcing. Progress In Oceanography, 78(1): 58–77

© Laurence Dyke (2018)